2017河南专升本英语形容词与副词用法总结

作者:河南专升本网时间:2017-02-19浏览次数:1555

形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容词、动词,其他副词或者句子,一般位于形容词之前,动词之后或句子之首。

  形容词主要修饰名词,在句中做定语、表语和补足语。

  It is a cold and windy day.

  She is very beautiful.

  Knowledge makes one gentle.

  一、形容词

  (1)单个形容词作定语一般放在被修饰词前面。形容词短语作定语,定语后置。

  This is a language difficult to master

  (2)用作定语,修饰由some-, any-,every-, no-等和body,one,thing等构成的复合不定代词词如anything、something等时,通常后置。如:

  I have something important to tell you.

  (3)几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定语(The、 A、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词、数词等)+ 描绘性形容词 (表示大小、长短、高低、形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ 表用途类别的形容词+ 名词。如:

  a large black wooden box

  the first beautiful little white Chinese stone bridge

  (4 ) 由前缀a-构成的形容词 如:asleep, alike,alive, alone等须后置来修饰名词。

  He was the happiest man alive.

  He will be remembered for that one book alone.

  (5) 某些以-able 和-ible 结尾的形容词作定语常后置,如:imaginable, possible, available等。(这些词做后置定语修饰名词时,名词前常可以有形容词最高级或only 等限定词做前置定语。)

  This is the best means available.

  We had the greatest difficulty imaginable getting here in time.

  (6) 表示长、宽、高、深及年龄的形容词,应放在所修饰的名词之后。

  He is 30 years old.

  The river is about 200 meters long.

  (7) enough意为“充足的”修饰名词时即可放在名词前也可放在名词后。但enough做副词修饰形容词或副词时应当后置。

  There is enough food for everyone.

  We had food enough for ten people.

  2、复合形容词的构成

  (1)形容词 + 名词 + ed

  kind-hearted好心的,white-haired白发的

  (2)形容词 + 形容词

  red-hot炽热的,dark-blue深蓝的

  (3)形容词 + 现在分词

  good-looking好看的,easy-going随和的

  (4)副词 + 现在分词

  hard-working勤劳的,fast-moving快速转动的

  (5)副词 + 过去分词

  hard-won得来不易的,newly-made新建的

  (6)名词 + 形容词

  life-long终生的,world-famous世界闻名的

  (7)名词 + 现在分词

  peace-loving爱好和平的,fun-loving爱开玩笑的

  (8)名词 + 过去分词

  snow-covered白雪覆盖的,hand-made手工的

  (9)数词 + 名词 + ed

  four-storeyed 4层楼的,three-legged 3条腿的

  (10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数)

  ten-year 10年的,two-day两天的

  二、副词

  副词主要用来修饰动词、形容词或副词,在句中可以做状语、表语和宾补。

  We should have clearly defined goals.

  Positive ideas are everywhere.

  Only struggle can help us out.

  (1)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:具体的→笼统的,小的→大的,短的→长的(单词)。如:

  I saw the program at 10 o’clock yesterday.

  They ate in a Chinese restaurant in London.

  She spoke slowly, sensibly, and naturally.

  (2)just 和just now

  两者都表示刚才讲,just 通常用于现在完成时,just now 多用于一般过去时,两者在句中的位置也不一样。

  I have just had a phone call from Mary.

  Elizabeth rang up just now.

  (3)fairly 和rather

  两者都是相当的意思 fairly主要修饰褒义的形容词或副词,而rather主要修饰贬义的形容词或副词。

  Jim is fairly clever, but Jack is rather stupid.

  (4)hard 和hardly

  hard 意思为努力地,沉重的;而hardly表示几乎不,简直不。

  We must work hard.

  He could hardly walk.

  (5)also, as well, too都表示也但是他们在句中的位置不同。either也表示也,但用于否定句中。

  I have also made up my mind to work the answer out.

  I have made up my mind to work the answer out as well.

  I have made up my mind to work the answer out, too.

  I haven’t seen this film, and my brother hasn’t seen it either.

  (6)every day和 everyday。every day是名词短语 意为每天多做状语,everyday 是形容词意为日常的。

  The students go to the library every day.

  Every day seems a year.

  For each class, we have some practice on everyday English.

  (7)high 和highly。high做副词意思为高高地,在 高处,highly 意思为非常、及其。

  climb high sing high

  highly skillful

  think highly of sb.

  (8)sometime, sometimes和some time

  Come over and see us sometime.

  He sometimes get up late.

  I have been waiting for you for some time.

  ①下列单词以-ly结尾,但却是形容词而非副词:lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、ugly、silly、likely、timely等。

  副词:

  dead完全,绝对be dead asleep

  deadly非常be deadly tired

  pretty相当be pretty certain that…

  prettily漂亮地be prettily dressed

  close近地Don’t sit close.

  closely密切地Watch closely!

  late晚、迟arrive late, come late

  lately最近I haven’t seen him lately(recently).

  3、形容词和副词的比较等级

  (1)原级的构成和用法。

  构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。

  用法:表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时,用“as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示双方不相等时,用“not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示一方是另一方的若干倍时,用“倍数 + as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如:

  Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu.

  This building looks not so (as) high as that one.

  Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you .

  This room is three times as large as that one.

  (2)比较级和最高级的构成。

  掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。单音节和少数双音节词在词尾加er或est,多音节和部分双音节词在词前加more或most。

  (3)比较级的用法。

  ①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如:

  This picture is more beautiful than that one.

  ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如:

  This room is less beautiful than that one.

  ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如even、a lot、a bit、a little、still、much、far、yet、by far等修饰。如:

  He works much harder than before.

  另注意:by far通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加“the”。如:

  He is taller by far than his brother.

  He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

  ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语),the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语)”的结构(意为“越……越……”)。如:

  The harder he works, the happier he feels.

  ⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。如:

  The weather is getting colder and colder.

  The girl becomes more and more beautiful.

  ⑥某些以-ior结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。这些词有inferior(劣等的,次的)、superior(较好的,优于……)、junior(资历较浅的)、senior(资格较老的)、prior(在……之前)等。

  He is superior to Mr. Zhang in chemistry.

  ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that指物,one既可指人又可指物。that可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而one只能代替可数名词。

  The book on the table is more interesting than that(或the one)on the desk.

  ⑧倍数表达法。(A)A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)。The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍)。(B)A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。(C)A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.

  Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

  (4)最高级的用法。

  ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。如:

  Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

  He works(the)hardest in his class.

  ②最高级可被序数词以及much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothing like等词语所修饰。如:

  This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest.

  How much did the second most expensive hat cost?

  ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如favorite、excellent、extreme、perfect等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

  ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如:

  He is the tallest(boy)in his class.

  ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如:

  Of all the boys he came(the)earliest.

  (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。

  ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。

  ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常”。如:

  He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very)

  The film is most interesting.(most=very)

  ③表示两者间“较……的一个”比较级前加the。如:

  who is the older of the two boys?

  ④在“the + 比较级…,the + 比较级…”结构中。

  ⑤在same前一般要加the。

  ⑥有些形容词前加the 成为名词。如the poor、the rich 等。

  (6)由as / so组成的形容词或副词短语。

  ① as much as + 不可数名词数量。

  Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons.

  She could earn as much as ten dollars a week.

  ②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达

  I have as a many as sixteen reference books.

  ③as early as早在

  As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island.

  ④as far as远到;就……而知(论)

  We might go as far as (走到)the church and back.

  As far as I know(就我所知),he has been there before.

  ⑤may (might, could)as well不妨、不如

  Then you might as well stay with us here.

  ⑥as … as can be到了最……的程度,极其

  They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。

  ⑦as … as one can

  He began to run, as fast as he could.

  ⑧as … as possible

  Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible.

  (7)几组重要的词语辨析。

  ①very 和much的区别。

  (A)表示状态的过去分词前用very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a very complicated problem, 一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed结尾的分词多用much、very much / greatly等修饰。如:We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude。

  (C)已转化为形容词的现在分词前用very。如:very interesting / worrying / exciting。


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